Marco Bezzecchi set the pace at India's debut MotoGP practice with a fastest time of one minute, 45.990 seconds in Friday's first session at the Buddh International Circuit.
The Italian, who rides a Ducati for VR46 Racing, was 0.139 seconds ahead of Marc Marquez on a Honda, and 0.32 seconds in front of third-placed South African rider Brad Binder of Red Bull KTM Factory Racing.
Bezzecchi remains a contender for the 2023 title on 65 points, behind championship leader Francesco Bagnaia.
Reigning world champion Bagnaia, on a factory Ducati, was 15th, 1.060sec behind Bezzecchi.
The Buddh track on the outskirts of the capital New Delhi hosted Formula One for three seasons until 2013 and the motorbike riders have raised concerns about some corners and walls too close to the asphalt.
India is hosting the 13th of the 20 MotoGP races this season.